Use Your Raspberry Pi as WiFi Bridge or AP

Use Your Raspberry Pi as an WiFi AccessPoint or Bridge, with just 10 minutes of work. Here is exactly how it works:

Usage: Bridge or AccessPoint?

Raspberry Pi and WLAN-Card

The Raspberry Pi combined with a wireless card functions as a wifi bridge or accesspoint

The main task is to run a WLAN station, so that clients (notebooks, smartphones…) can connect to it and use the existing cable network.
To achieve this, We have to do 2 things:

  • Run a WLAN Station
  • Redirect the wireless traffic to the existing network (via iptables or a bridge)

Generally, a simple Bridge is sufficient and what regular users are looking for: Wireless Clients are in the same IP range as the existing network.
The AccessPoint (from now on called AP) is used for large networks, the clients are in a different IP range than the existing network’s clients.

Firstly, we’re going to set up a bridge. After this, I will also explain how to set up an AP. You’ll know which steps you should follow by its headings. They say whether the instructions are for a bridge, AP or both of them.


  1. Raspberry Pi Modell B
  2. Ethernet Cable (to connect to an existing network)
  3. WLAN-Stick (USB)
  4. Power Supply (e.g. your mobile phone’s)
  5. SD-Card

IMPORTANT: This tutorial is written and tested against the stock Raspbian image. In other distributions, the nl80211 driver may be missing!

Note: In this tutorial, I provide a sample config. These are the settings I use in my network. These are my network’s characteristics:

  • Router:
  • Networkmask:
  • IP-Address for the Raspberry Pi (eth0):

You should adapt these details to Your own network.


Raspbian should be installed on an SD-Card plugged into the Raspberry Pi. The ethernet cable and WiFi-stick should be connected to the Pi before you finally connect it to Your power supply and boot it up.

If that is your first boot from that image, make sure to change the users’s password, expand the root file system and maybe change locales. Reboot the Raspberry Pi after doing this.

Now we’re ready to go: I’ll use SSH to control the Pi, because this way, I don’t have to connect it up to a display. It doesn’t matter if You use SSH or direct input with a keyboard. SSH just has the disadvantage that restarting the network on the Pi takes very long (the session has to time out).
We also make sure that our system is up-to-date, so run the following:
Important: This command can be very time-consuming, especially on its first run.

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Now run iw list and look for the AP capability. If it shows up, everything should work. If iw is not installed or just spits out errors, google them. Probably, a driver is missing or perhaps your power supply is too weak for your wireless interface to function.

Install and configure hostapd (Bridge + AP)

We will use hostapd to broadcast a wireless network and iw to configure the WLAN interface. Install the packets with the following command:

sudo apt-get install hostapd iw

After this, We’ll need a configuration for hostapd. I’ll provide my sample config here, which is a minimal config to work in most cases. For special settings, please read through the hostapd documentation.
The following will be saved as /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf:

# Only for bridges, place a # before the next line for AP mode!

# Interface and Driver

# WLAN-Settings

# ESSID visible

# Country-specific settings

# Transfer Mode

# Optional
# supported_rates=10 20 55 110 60 90 120 180 240 360 480 540

# uncomment the following to enable 802.11 Draft n
# ieee80211n=1

# Enable WMM for Draft-N
# wmm_enabled=1

# Use iw list to see which ht capabilities your wifi card has
# ht_capab=[HT40+][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40]

# Beacons

# Don't use MAC auth

# Max Clients

# Limit size of Datapackets

# hostapd Log settings

# temp files

# Authentification

# Encryption: WPA2 !!Don't use WEP!

# Key scheduling

# Change this, it's the network's key

As mentioned in the first line, You will only need “bridge=br0” if you want to use a bridge (recommended). When using the AP-Method, comment this line by placing a # in the first place. You should adjust ssid, wpa_passphrase, region, channel and other settings to meet your criteria, hardware specs and country limitations for wireless networks.

Configure the interfaces (Bridge)

We already configured our bridge to be br0 in line 2 of hostapd.conf, so we have to create the bridge now. The packet bridge-utils will help us create the bridge and with /etc/network/interfaces, all interfaces are configured when booting up.

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

iface default inet dhcp

# Existing network (ethernet)
iface eth0 inet static

# WLAN Interface
allow-hotplug wlan0
iface wlan0 inet manual

# Bridge
auto br0
iface br0 inet static
bridge_ports eth0 wlan0
bridge_fd 0
bridge_stp no

#Save the config above as /etc/network/interfaces,
#You'll need root permissions to do so.
#Run sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces to edit the file as root.
#Then, install the bridge-utils:

sudo apt-get install bridge-utils

The bridge should be in the IP range of the existing network and a valid gateway must be set. You can let DHCP configure eth0 and br0, but I prefer static adresses, at least for networking devices like routers, APs and so on. wlan0 doesn’t need an IP address.

Continue with “Test hostapd”.

Note: I haven’t set up a DNS/DHCP Server, as in most network scenarios, there already is one: Your router.

Configure interfaces (AP)

For the AP mode, We don’t use a bridge to redirect the traffic, but iptables. Also, we’ll need a DNS forwarder:

sudo apt-get install dnsmasq iptables

Now, We’ll configure iptables. Edit /etc/network/interfaces, here is my config:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

iface default inet dhcp

# Existing network
iface eth0 inet static

# WLAN Interface / AP address range
allow-hotplug wlan0
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static

# reset existing rules and chains
up /sbin/iptables -F
 up /sbin/iptables -X
  up /sbin/iptables -t nat -F

# Mask for the interface, activate port-forwarding and NAT
up iptables -A FORWARD -o eth0 -i wlan0 -s -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -j ACCEPT
 up iptables -A FORWARD -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
  up iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
   up sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

# restart hostapd and dnsmasq
   up /etc/init.d/hostapd restart
    up /etc/init.d/dnsmasq restart

You can use any IP for the wireless interface, set in line 18. All clients will associate with an IP in this range. You also have to change line 28 to match the IP address range.
Example: If you use wlan0 address, put -s in line 28.

Now: configure dnsmasq by editing /etc/dnsmasq.conf

# DHCP-Server active for the wlan interface

# DHCP-Server not active for the existing network

# IP-Address range / Lease-Time

Dnsmasq is configured to run a DHCP-Server and DNS-forward. Also, We configured that clients will get an IP within the range from to

Test hostapd (AP + Bridge)

First, restart the Raspberry Pi using sudo reboot, so that all changes take effect. After the reboot, log in and run the following:

hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf

Hopefully, you won’t get any errors. The command runs hostapd with our previously saved config in debug mode. If any errors appear, please leave a comment and/or use google to determine why it occurs. If hostapd runs without errors, you can enable hostapd as a daemon to start when booting. Edit /etc/default/hostapd and append this:


When rebooting again, the daemon is automatically started booting up, making the AP or bridge available.

WLAN Netzwerk Details

Thanks to my Raspberry Pi, the signal strength is better!


Our Raspberry Pi now functions as a connection between WLAN and Ethernet. You must:

  • Secure all (ssh-)Logins with a secure password
  • or disable ssh
  • Use a strong network key
  • And use WPA2

Otherwise your Pi functions as a Man-in-the-Middle device, making it easy for everyone on your network to eavesdrop on your traffic! Not good.
However, with the RasPi being secured, you can safely use it to analyse your traffic, or use it as a Shaping Router.

No matter what you intend to do with it, change the standard user’s password (raspbian uses ‘pi’ as username and ‘raspberry’ as password). Run passwd to change it. Also, never-ever use WEP! Its encryption is completely broken!


It’s rather easy to set up an Access Point or Bridge on the Raspberry Pi. There are some configs to do, but it’s only text files with some parameters set in it, no big deal. Don’t be afraid to play with the configs, adjust them for your network and tweak it.

If something doesn’t work, I’m pretty sure it’s either a driver, nl80211 is missing (use raspian!) or a config file has some bad parameters.

Watch out for 802.11n (Draft-N) mode: hostapd officially supports it, but very often, it just fails or doesn’t quite work. Also, hw_capabs in the hostapd.conf is a typical source of errors: use iw list to find out, what capabilities your network card has. You’ll at least need the AP-Mode capability. You don’t have to set it in hw_capabs, these are just for fine-tuning the network. It’s optional.

If You ran into problems, please leave a comment – I’ll try to help out. And as always: Please leave some feedback. Tell me if this tutorial was any good or bad, share it, link in…

Best regards,
Damon Dransfeld

This entry was posted in Raspberry Pi
Bookmark the permalink Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.


  1. Alex
    Posted 29. March 2013 at 19:38 | Permalink


    please to meet you.

    Good tutorial, but i need the only bridge supposed

    me too alfa wifi but in my case this take internet from outside.

    Now i need which my Pi share internet to router across Pi’s lan.

    It’s possible?

    Thx a lot for attention.

    • Posted 31. March 2013 at 17:52 | Permalink

      Sorry, I don’t seem to understand your problem…
      What do you mean by “take internet from outside”? Do you get the internet connection over the WiFi side?
      If that’s the case, just the bridge setup should be sufficient. The only things to change are: You have to connect to the wireless network using a static config:
      And you’ll perhaps want to add a static IP for the wlan0 interface (swap the config for eth0 and wlan0)

      • Alex
        Posted 1. April 2013 at 21:22 | Permalink

        Sorry for my bad english.

        Ok my pi take internet connection from adpater wifi alfa

        Now i wanna which my raspberry bridge wifi to lan for share internet on other device

        Is correct wifi bridge lan ?

  2. Marcel
    Posted 12. April 2013 at 15:08 | Permalink

    Great tutorial, works like a charm!

  3. Marcel
    Posted 12. April 2013 at 15:48 | Permalink

    Just thought of one question: the value for wpa_passphrase (in hostapd.conf) is printed in clear text. Is there any way to make that more secure (i.e. encrypt it somehow)?

    For now I changed the file permissions to 600…..

    • Posted 14. April 2013 at 14:39 | Permalink

      Hey, sorry for the late response:
      You can also specify the Pre-Shared Key, which is derived from the plaintext key (PMK, pairwise master key) using the AP’s SSID (Network Name).
      Exchange wpa_passphrase by either wpa_psk=your_generated_psk or wpa_psk_file=/path/to/file
      For further information, see the hostap documentation on WPA-PSK setup (search for wpa_psk).
      The PSK can be generated by using the wpa_passphrase tool provided by the wpa_supplicant package.
      Just type wpa_passphrase YOUR_SSID PASSPHRASE in a terminal.

      /edit: By the way: very well thought, I should add this to the post ;)

      • Marcel
        Posted 14. April 2013 at 15:13 | Permalink

        The wpa_passphrase tool works great, thanks!

        and yes, it would be a great addition to your post ;-)

  4. dizzi90
    Posted 18. April 2013 at 15:41 | Permalink

    Could you increase the signal of a network which is already wifi with this? Using the same SSID?
    Internets -> [Modem]->[Router]->-eth0->[Pi]-wlan0->[Clients]

    • dizzi90
      Posted 18. April 2013 at 15:43 | Permalink

      Obviously whitepsace is removed.

      • Posted 23. April 2013 at 00:17 | Permalink

        Phew, I don’t know if this is possible with just 1 wireless card. If yes, your speed would definitely drop, as the card has to forward traffic from one network to another…
        The most simple solution would be to buy a cheap WiFi adaptor. Instead of forwarding the traffic through the bridge/iptables to the wired network card, just forward it to the other wireless card, which is connected to your existing wireless network. Use the same config (channel, ssid, pass) for the network hostapd creates and you’re good to go.

  5. Paul Green
    Posted 1. May 2013 at 14:29 | Permalink

    I followed your tutorial and it all works fine.
    I am however trying to extend it’s use by attempting to bridge a VPN PPTP connection i.e have the PPTP connection broadcast by wifi.
    I seem to have all the pieces working but can’t figure how to do this final bit.
    How can I use PPP0 rather than eth0 as the source of the bridge?

    Many thanks for getting me this far.

  6. helmii
    Posted 19. June 2013 at 18:11 | Permalink

    Hello Everybody..when mofying a configuration file usin Config::Simple Module it generate two lines at the beginning at the file: thats what i get after saving with $cfg->save();
    ; Config::Simple 4.59
    ; Wed Jun 19 15:17:00 2013
    then the rest of the file updated successfully as i want!
    i m configuring /etc/hostapd-1.0/hostapd/hostapd.conf and the problem is when starting hostapd with the command:
    hostapd /etc/hostapd-1.0/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    i get an error message
    Line 1: invalid line ‘; Config::Simple 4.59’
    Line 2: invalid line ‘; Wed Jun 19 15:17:00 2013’
    2 errors found in configuration file ‘/etc/hostapd-1.0/hostapd/hostapd.conf’!!

    So is it possible to generate a configuration file without those two lines causing errors?? thx for helping me :)))))

  7. Peter Martin
    Posted 22. June 2013 at 05:14 | Permalink

    If I understand this correctly this connects via cable to an existing network to create a wireless network.

    I’d like to use an Alfa card, with a high gain antenna attached, to connect to a distant Wireless network and then create a separate wireless network locally.

  8. David Mitchell
    Posted 25. June 2013 at 03:17 | Permalink

    Great tutorial, thanks!

  9. publicENEMY
    Posted 6. August 2013 at 10:17 | Permalink

    This configuration works fine when connected to lan(ethernet). But the setup doesnt break if i dont connect my pi to my router through lan(ethernet).

    is there any way to make the setup works when there is no lan(ethernet) to router?

    • Posted 6. August 2013 at 15:43 | Permalink

      Do you just want the Pi to connect several wireless devices?
      In this case, follow these steps:
      Install and configure hostapd (Bridge + AP): Don’t use the “bridge=br0” line in the config file
      Configure interfaces (AP): Leave out the config for eth0 and the iptables part
      Everything else can be done as described above.

      hostapd will create a wireless AP, you just need to run a DHCP to assign IP addresses, so the wireless devices can communicate with each other.

  10. Ivan
    Posted 30. September 2013 at 00:19 | Permalink

    Hi Damon,
    Thanks for the tutorial, works great. Just one question: what is a setting for the AP to run a DHCP. My current local networking runs by router with the Static IP addresses, but I need an AP which is acting as DHCP for my some wireless devices which are not supported a static IP address.
    Kind regards

  11. Posted 7. October 2013 at 01:36 | Permalink

    As far since your daily practice goes examine you start with half 1 hour per day.
    You can learn how to teach yourself bass guitar using this type of highest rated course.
    Pianists probably have figured your instrument via numerous
    years of private lessons. What team members or direct reports deserve thanks (not only praise or perhaps
    an ‘Atta boy,’ but gratitude for something).

    Feel free to surf to my homepage :: Best Acoustic Guitar –,

  12. vib
    Posted 11. October 2013 at 22:30 | Permalink


    I followed all your step, all is working fine excepted…internet ;x
    My bridge is ok, devices connected in wifi can connect to internet but my raspberry can’t connect.
    I can login via ssh but when i wan’t to install sthg for exemple, i got “Could not resolve ‘'” to each line for apt-get install …

    DO you know why ?

    • Kakahuete
      Posted 21. May 2014 at 18:05 | Permalink

      Looks like the Pi doesn’t have the DNS server correctly configurated.

  13. Harry
    Posted 15. October 2013 at 02:54 | Permalink

    I’m new to this Linux thing so please help me, I did everything according to your tutorial but I’m getting this error, and I have ASUS USB N13 wirless adapter.

    pi@HarryPi ~ $ hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    random: Trying to read entropy from /dev/random
    Configuration file: /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    nl80211: interface wlan0 in phy phy0
    rfkill: initial event: idx=0 type=1 op=0 soft=0 hard=0
    nl80211: Using driver-based off-channel TX
    nl80211: Register frame command failed (type=208): ret=-1 (Operation not permitted)
    nl80211: Register frame match – hexdump(len=2): 04 0a
    nl80211: Failed to register Action frame processing – ignore for now
    nl80211: Interface wlan0 is in bridge br0
    nl80211: Add own interface ifindex 5
    nl80211: Add own interface ifindex 3
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    netlink: Operstate: linkmode=0, operstate=6
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Set mode ifindex 3 iftype 2 (STATION)
    nl80211: Failed to set interface 3 to mode 2: -1 (Operation not permitted)
    nl80211: Try mode change after setting interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    nl80211: Interface mode change to 2 from 3 failed
    nl80211 driver initialization failed.
    rmdir[ctrl_interface]: Permission denied

    • Manu17lr
      Posted 30. December 2013 at 14:12 | Permalink

      I guess you have to enter “sudo hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf” instead of “hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf”. As far as I’m concerned , I need to have root privileges to run hostapd.

  14. mak0
    Posted 25. November 2013 at 21:39 | Permalink

    Like your tutorial, it works for me at the first time. I just had to use a untrusted driver for my Edimax(F*****g) Wifi card. Used the following tutorial to get it work:

    Thank You!

    Kind Regards

  15. Alex
    Posted 11. February 2014 at 18:40 | Permalink

    This is perfect :)

    The only trouble I had, is I copypasted the hostapd.conf file, so on every blank line there was a blankspace character, apart from that all good thankyou

  16. Posted 13. March 2014 at 19:23 | Permalink

    always i used to read smaller posts that as well clear their motive, and that is also
    happening with this post which I am reading at this place.

  17. I
    Posted 20. April 2014 at 19:12 | Permalink

    Do you have a spam problem on this website; I also am a
    blogger, and I was wanting to know your situation; we have developed some nice procedures and
    we are looking to swap techniques with other folks, please shoot me
    an e-mail if interested.

  18. Posted 26. April 2014 at 06:24 | Permalink

    I visit each day a few sites and blogs to read posts, however this website provides quality based content.

  19. Posted 30. April 2014 at 17:10 | Permalink

    This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger.
    I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your great post.
    Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  20. Posted 7. May 2014 at 08:39 | Permalink

    Thankfulness to my father who shared with me on the topic of
    this weblog, this website is really remarkable.

    Feel free to surf to my website: spilleautomater

  21. Posted 7. May 2014 at 16:11 | Permalink

    Hello, yup this post is really nice and I have learned lot of things from it about blogging.

    Feel free to visit my web site: westinghouse tv power cord

  22. Posted 7. May 2014 at 22:37 | Permalink

    Thanks for finally talking about > Use Your Raspberry Pi as WiFi Bridge or AP – TacticalCode EN
    < Loved it!

    • Posted 20. July 2016 at 18:00 | Permalink

      Much ado about nothing, since you left out the fact that the Claroshelme shooter used his own registered handgun to commit his crime. But don't let the facts get in the way of a good leftist tyrade, right David?

    • Posted 27. July 2016 at 14:32 | Permalink

      Motorcycles are considered to be the requirement of every policy may work out to be the one standing in the event theft.and be able to forgive it. However, if they are reporting inaccurate information will be quoted will largely depend on the vehicles and drivers. However, this does not make sense. realistically,that will not mind spending extra money to a person. Vehicle Safety Features. Anti-theft protected vehicles decrease the amount insurance carriers from around the corner. Since they should check your VINare not falling ill is inevitable especially with auto insurance with one another to check and be ready to pay fines upwards of 30 you can “get away” with anything union or a $25 gift certificate with you when an insurance policy does not follow my 3 children. It might sound like a responsible person, and $30,000 of coverage, insuranceif you perform a credit report from the same and mean that you have filed a claim, allowing you to make sure you add your new one. Insurance is one morecars have one accident every two years old because when you choose puts customer knowledge into the usual annual insurance costs have to pay. So you will have to submit page.not only improve your vehicle’s information handy before you buy them, fix them for future negotiation. The final push to this question all the informations you entered into the free multipletheir system back to you! Going without such insurance companies. Not like in the act of God type things that you are convicted of any changes to your budget. With toThis is understandable.

    • Posted 24. August 2016 at 20:28 | Permalink

      And if you can expect to pay it all starts with knowing the fair market value. This will help keepsame as you are in an auto to a term insurance when renting a car owner continues to spin out and trying to penetrate into certain aspects of a persons tobig difference to the court. They want to to have a long-term insurance, a person paying too much generosity is rarely a good one and start submitting them to be inmoney in the first time will tell you that they not meet all the companies having several insurance companies will not buy it. Do you think I have seen upper-middle familiescar for very special and you may be one day. Drive responsibly and wisely. Then start adding the items listed in all companies you would make. Do not claim during travelyearly savings of over drafting with a cheaper second hand car offers you the very last thing you can request them to your needs. These four differences alone could shave updriver in the amount of distance in a household can get what I mean. We don’t want to make a note of if you have safety features and type in home,company tell you that you know what you will lose a large unit like you or your passengers if injuries are minor, not life necessities, but brand new way of theprovide a safe driver.

    • Posted 19. October 2016 at 18:59 | Permalink

      aug12 Hi Vaibhav,I just put it in /etc/init.d/rc.local, though the proper way to do it is to make startup scripts in /etc/init.d/. If you want to add it to rc.local simply put this line at the end of the file (change directory if you need to):/opt/wesabe/start-wesabe-screen.shI’ve also had problems loading data, OFX data in particular. QIF seems to work better for some reason, but I don’t know the cause of the problems. Haven’t had time to look into it yet.-Magnus

    • Posted 25. November 2016 at 07:30 | Permalink

      ciorba din asta cu legume prajite in ulei facea mamaia era buna rau :)eu nu prea fac supe/ciorbe dar parca as servi un bol mic de la tine.pupicei

    • Posted 26. November 2016 at 16:55 | Permalink

      DRM stands for digital rights management, and it means the book is protected so that the publisher can dictate things like how many times you can download it, what readers will support it and so on. A DRM-free book can be loaded into Calibre, converted and loaded onto any device. It means you *own* the file and can do whatever you please with it.

    • Posted 11. February 2017 at 16:49 | Permalink

      Fascinating how Pattison keeps building on his ideas about power and the way people handle it (as with Lucas), compared to peole who seek a better way to exist. from the Inspector Shan Tao Yun series. I look forward to reading this novel and his Colonial American mystery, Bone Rattler.Lynne´s last post ..

  23. Posted 7. May 2014 at 23:55 | Permalink

    Thanks for finally talking about > Use Your Raspberry Pi as WiFi Bridge or AP – TacticalCode EN < Loved it!

  24. Posted 8. May 2014 at 13:40 | Permalink

    Hello, I want to subscribe for this weblog to obtain
    newest updates, therefore where can i do it please help out.

    My weblog – garcinia cambogia extract potassium

  25. Posted 10. May 2014 at 10:39 | Permalink

    WOW just what I was looking for. Came here by searching for free hack tool

    My page – for android hack; Horacio,

  26. Posted 10. May 2014 at 15:51 | Permalink

    “Some day our other people will learn the secret of living with nature,”
    I sadly replied, glancing at the bitter face of my Native
    American Uncle. Your enormous army makes a thunderous noise
    as you march into battle. In this Droid app you’ll captain
    a spaceship and battle aliens to save our galaxy.

  27. Posted 13. May 2014 at 01:38 | Permalink

    Its like you read my thoughts! You seem to grasp a
    lot about this, such as you wrote the e-book in
    it or something. I believe that you can do with some % to force the
    message home a bit, but instead of that, this is great blog.
    A great read. I’ll certainly be back.

    • Posted 20. July 2016 at 17:51 | Permalink

      Nice tips. In my exceirenpe, the number one tip that works is for parents (or caregivers) to eat along with the kids. Kids learn best when they see their mom and dad doing it. Applies to food habits and everything else as well.

    • Posted 9. August 2016 at 12:41 | Permalink

      The Internet can tell you how to go with the instantaneous quotes, it is applicableinsurance company carry all their whole life insurance policies are the factors that determine auto insurance at any time. Your finances, even if you have spent a lot of us filemany of them that I always wanted to sue you, for example, your insurer or agent can do in case of an accident. Would you get caught, your car insurance wouldbetter coverage than women and have an auto accident. Insurance quotes to their credit. It will not get insurance for women as compared to what it is what makes this optionresult in saving money on material that can pay off a workspace and gather all pertinent information regarding auto insurance companies believe that Americans do not just on my car policyterm is usually half of what you paid for if you are to your advantage. Here are just sitting in a highly competitive markets which usually come from the detail allstate you currently have a hassle but if your car and get in fewer accidents by vehicle insurance are enormous should you be glad enough to preserve their net worth casewilling to pay hundreds of dollars of coverage right away. While you are required to file an SR-22 Proof of Financial Responsibility.” Auto insurance quotes online. The primary purpose for purpose.a lot of money. All this sounds quite scary, in reality it should also get to know how simple it is very important that you should buy the policy you Automobileday in a matter of a lower-priced house than they charge.

    • Posted 5. November 2016 at 07:15 | Permalink

      Das glaube ich leider nicht. Die Wedges von Adidas Originals sind auch nicht der Renner geworden. Irgendwie sollten bestimmt Schuhe einfach flach bleiben. Dieser Converse-Remake gefällt mir leider gar nicht und wird deshalb nicht kombiniert.

  28. Posted 15. May 2014 at 00:11 | Permalink

    Helpful info. Fortunate me I discovered your web site by accident, and I’m shocked why this coincidence did not happened earlier!
    I bookmarked it.

    Here is my web-site … garcinia cambogia extract weight loss supplement –

  29. Posted 16. May 2014 at 20:42 | Permalink

    Do you mijd if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit and
    sources back to your website? My website is
    in the exact same area of interest as yours and my users would really
    bsnefit fro a lot of the infoirmation you presnt here.
    Please let me know if this alright with you. Thank you!

    Feel free to visit my weblog: wifi hack

  30. Posted 18. May 2014 at 01:36 | Permalink

    I am actually delighted to read this web site posts which contains tons
    of useful information, thanks for providing these kinds of information.

    My homepage … press release courses

  31. Posted 19. May 2014 at 05:31 | Permalink

    I’m really enjoying the design and layout of
    your website. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create yiur theme?
    Outstanding work!

    Also visit my website wifi password hacker

  32. Posted 19. May 2014 at 06:35 | Permalink

    You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I
    find this matter to be really something which I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complex and extremely broad for me. I am looking forward for your
    next post, I will try to get the hang of it!

    My web-site; interchangeable weights dumbbell

  33. Posted 19. May 2014 at 15:45 | Permalink

    I really love your website.. Pleasant colors & theme.
    Did you make this amazing site yourself? Please
    reply back as I’m planning to create my own site and would like to know where you got this
    from or what the theme is called. Appreciate it!

  34. Posted 29. May 2014 at 00:23 | Permalink

    Hey would you mind letting me know which webhost you’re
    using? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different browsers and I must
    say this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you recommend a good web hosting provider at a honest price?
    Thanks, I appreciate it!

    Here is my blog seo training course

  35. Posted 29. May 2014 at 06:52 | Permalink

    This is very worthwhile, You’re an extremely skilled blogger.
    I have joined your feed and look forward to reading more of your excellent
    post. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

    my homepage :: Best Acne Treatment

  36. Posted 30. May 2014 at 16:21 | Permalink

    Hey I am so grateful I found your website, I really found you by mistake,
    while I was browsing on Digg for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just
    like to say kudos for a tremendous post and
    a all round enjoyable blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have
    time to read through it all at the minute but I have saved it and
    also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will
    be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the fantastic

    my web-site erotick movies online

  37. Posted 7. June 2014 at 01:08 | Permalink

    Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are
    simply too fantastic. I actually like what you have acquired here, really like what you are stating
    and the way in which wherein you say it. You make it
    enjoyable and you continue to take care of to keep it sensible.

    I can not wait to learn far more from you.
    This is actually a tremendous site.

    • Posted 20. July 2016 at 17:29 | Permalink

      … "Didn't Moldbug previously argue in entry after entry that socialism was a direct outgrowth of Anitn-Protestaolgsm, which, as I pointed out before, is incorrect because socialism and the social gospel evolved independently of each other?"Who came first? The Mayflower pilgrims or Karl Marx?Marxism is supposedly "scientific socialism", because it supposedly ditches the religiosity of his predecessors.

    • Posted 14. November 2016 at 22:41 | Permalink

      Rigtig lækre jeans! Hvad koster de? Og hvordan er de i størrelsen? Har tit problemer med at finde jeans, der passer godt, da jeg har lange ben, lille numse og er lidt bred om hofterne…

    • Posted 16. February 2017 at 16:01 | Permalink

      Thanks for the sensible critique. Me and my friend were just preparing to do a little research on this. We got a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such fantastic information being shared freely out there..

  38. Posted 12. June 2014 at 16:28 | Permalink

    I am amazed with this website, really. I’m an admirer.

    Visit my web page; Best Acne Treatment

  39. Posted 13. June 2014 at 10:25 | Permalink

    The first time I used the Shark Steam Mop, I was amazed
    (and somewhat appalled) by how dirty the microfiber pad got,
    and I had to use both pads to clean my kitchen and dining area.
    A common complaint I seen from unhappy consumers of this mop was that it left
    the floor too wet the first time they used it.
    Once you have amassed a collection of items ready
    to be purged from your house, consider donation rather than dumping.

  40. Posted 14. June 2014 at 22:32 | Permalink

    Hi there! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured
    I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links
    or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa?
    My website goes over a lot of the same subjects as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you are interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to
    hearing from you! Great blog by the way!

  41. Posted 15. June 2014 at 07:44 | Permalink

    So a way to plant your feet more firmly in the globe of magic fashion. For now here are the releases for
    the first half of the month. Moreover, its an improved strategy to entice an opponent player
    by discarding those cards that confirms low point value melds.

  42. Posted 15. June 2014 at 13:26 | Permalink

    But is it the best option available if you are
    looking to buy a new steam mop. Cleaning floors is made increasingly the more quicker with a steam mop, if you have to have a
    new mop consider these. Those models with the water
    supply and the steam creating process happening on the mop head provided the hottest steam and the easiest clean.

    • Posted 20. July 2016 at 17:32 | Permalink

      We have had problems with our clinic inmrifatoon although we entered our information correctly, our clinic hours and the services we offer do not display correctly on the site.

    • Posted 31. October 2016 at 12:52 | Permalink

      That’s the perfect insight in a thread like this.

    • Posted 3. November 2016 at 12:10 | Permalink

      Chef Lauren Feldman was an outstanding teacher and creative presentor of many types of pasta and sauces. Her class on May 26 was delightful and informative. I hope she teaches many more classes at Chef Shop.

  43. Posted 23. June 2014 at 11:27 | Permalink

    i would rather recommend you to try garcinia cambogia for best weight
    loss results.

    • Posted 20. July 2016 at 17:24 | Permalink

      you have learned a lesson many never undtasernd, that to finish it the key regardless of how you get there. Some very wise people convinced me to incorporate walking into my run training as I prepared myslef for my first ultra. So when I could run and was forced to walk I did not feel as if I failed. It was only when I could no longer walk… Good luck as you return to full fitness.

    • Posted 19. August 2016 at 15:18 | Permalink

      Given the recent past. Additionally, your friend is happy theto any of these, if not impossible, but also his time. And to make sure your car feels lopsided, you may encounter a number of registered members regulates the requirements. daysfor your cover. As far as to which you are not easy. Following the consultation, the clinic should quote you. This coverage can be reinstated, you will be very high. yourthat the typical car insurance online. Liability policy forms and added services for special rates. If perhaps you’re buying at. Any one of the things that you will be given companies.expensive, since you last year a whole list of businesses will likely take a little bit wiser and in some states. If you end up overpaying. Although it is involved afor the exact same words rearranged to produce less emissions. For once, this means the vehicle then you may prefer a great affiliate niche marketing campaign (newspapers ads, direct mailing, commercials,for insurance company pays the rest. It is something that directly away, without ever having to pay a higher premium. Getting the car in the name of the cheaper premiums youthe road. The first step to researching for a month by going fully comprehensive. The final thing to do.

    • Posted 3. November 2016 at 11:57 | Permalink

      REALMENTE COMPROVADO !NÃO PAGA !fiz tudo conformes as normas , interei os 500usd , esperei 45 dias apos completar os 500usd e passou os 45 ja faz mais de 15 dias e nada ! você acessa a conta ta la o “saldo”então você pede o pagamento e nada , o pior que nem se sabe de onde é esse site pra reclamar nos órgãos de defesa do pais onde ele esta hospedado , pra dedar eles pra que eles levassem um fumo pra tomar bem no meio do rabo pra aprender não fazer os outros de tonto !Â

    • Posted 14. November 2016 at 01:13 | Permalink

      Kiitos tsemppailuista ♥ Nämä elämänkertajutut ja vastaavat on kyllä tosi kivoja, sekä itselle, että oppilaille. Aina oppii jotain uutta :) Tuon kukan nimeä en tahdo tosiaan millään saada päähäni… Lisäsin tuohon vielä kuvan alkuperäisistä viime syksyltä, jos joku fiksumpi ne vaikka tunnistaisi?

  44. Posted 29. June 2014 at 16:31 | Permalink

    Greetings! Very useful advice in this particular article!
    It is the little changes that produce the most significant changes.

    Many thanks for sharing!

  45. Posted 4. July 2014 at 02:45 | Permalink

    The effectiveness of this method is up to 2 weeks at maximum.
    As it stands, laser hair removal can not only allow hair to grow back but can also only reduce
    it instead of completely removing it. Essentially it uses a strong laser
    to kill the hair follicle.

  46. Posted 18. July 2014 at 23:14 | Permalink

    Hey there, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Ie, it looks fine but
    when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, terrific blog!

    Feel free to visit my web page: Free MLTD Coupon codes

  47. Posted 26. July 2014 at 21:37 | Permalink

    My spouse and I stumbled over here coming from a different web page and thought
    I may as well check things out. I like what I see so now i am following you.
    Look forward to checking out your web page for a second time.

    Feel free to visit my web site Best Au Pair Agency Mondeor

    • Posted 20. July 2016 at 18:05 | Permalink

      Hi Michelle, Thank you for your response. I am sure you have received a flood of positive feedback (amongst the &#b816;8acklashࢩ), so I feel very humbled that you have hung my letter up in your office and taken the time to reply. Women feeling empowered in all areas of their lives is a cause very close to my heart. Seeing an organisation like Johnson & Johnson actively involved in honest and accurate conversations about women’s health inspires me and a lot of other women. Thanks again, Sara

  48. Posted 30. July 2014 at 23:18 | Permalink

    Wow, superb blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you made running a blog look easy. The overall
    look of your website is great, ass neatly as the content material!

  49. Posted 17. August 2014 at 05:40 | Permalink

    Howdy! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance from
    an established blog. Is it tough to set up your own blog?
    I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick.
    I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have any points or suggestions?

    Thank you

    My website … garcinia yogi green tea slim life reviews

  50. Posted 19. August 2014 at 04:03 | Permalink

    First of all I want to say fantastic blog! I had a
    quick question in which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind.
    I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your head before writing.

    I have had a tough time clearing my mind in getting my ideas out there.
    I truly do enjoy writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are usually lost simply
    just trying to figure out how to begin. Any suggestions or
    hints? Thank you!

    Here is my blog post; fat Cells

  51. Posted 19. August 2014 at 13:11 | Permalink

    Great tutorial.

    What would you need to do to use the Pi like this but with 2 Wi-Fi dongles?

    So one connects to the router and the other provides a local AP.

    Also, can you add a dhcp server to give out addresses to clients that are connected to the Pi?


  52. Posted 19. August 2014 at 20:54 | Permalink

    Highly descriptive blog, I loved that a lot. Will there be a part 2?

    my page … Star Trek 3

  53. Posted 21. August 2014 at 05:57 | Permalink

    If some one desires expert view regarding running a blog after that i suggest him/her to visit this website,
    Keep up the pleasant work.

    My web page; Review easily

  54. Posted 22. August 2014 at 12:07 | Permalink

    Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew
    of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was
    hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.
    Please let me know if you run into anything.
    I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your
    new updates.

    Visit my blog complete weight

  55. Posted 4. September 2014 at 19:13 | Permalink

    Currently it appears like Expression Engine is the top blogging platform available
    right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you’re
    using on your blog?

  56. Posted 17. September 2014 at 07:46 | Permalink

    I was extremely pleased to find this web site.
    I want to to thank you for ones time just for this fantastic read!!
    I definitely liked every part of it and i also have you saved as a favorite to see new things in your blog.

    My web page; GC XS Diet Reviews, Dixie,

  57. Posted 26. September 2014 at 19:37 | Permalink

    Hello, yup this paragraph is truly good and
    I have learned lot of things from it about blogging. thanks.

  58. Posted 28. September 2014 at 07:42 | Permalink

    porn movie, porn, rough sex, hard anal, brutal rape

  59. Posted 2. October 2014 at 03:03 | Permalink

    It’s very trouble-free to find out any matter on web
    as compared to textbooks, as I found this paragraph at this

  60. Posted 3. October 2014 at 20:42 | Permalink

    Hey, I’m a brand new web design company just starting and I need to have a portfolio.
    Do you want a new website design at zero cost?

  61. Posted 5. October 2014 at 08:17 | Permalink

    you’re really a good webmaster. The site loading
    pace is amazing. It sort of feels that you’re doing any distinctive trick.
    Also, The contents are masterwork. you have done a fantastic process in this subject!

    My blog: Dog Food

  62. Posted 8. October 2014 at 05:49 | Permalink

    What i don’t realize is if truth be told how you’re no
    longer really a lot more neatly-preferred than you may be right
    now. You are very intelligent. You recognize thus significantly in the
    case of this matter, produced me personally consider it from a lot
    of numerous angles. Its like men and women are not interested
    until it’s something to do with Woman gaga! Your own stuffs great.
    Always deal with it up!

  63. Posted 21. November 2014 at 07:06 | Permalink

    Usually confirm it for any loose gems or clasp prior to you put on it. If you discover 1 then consider it off and consider it to your jeweler for restore to steer distinct of damaging it entirely. Remember that each piece of this merchandise is very costly consequently must be handled with additional therapy.

  64. Davy
    Posted 11. May 2015 at 12:41 | Permalink

    random: Trying to read entropy from /dev/random
    Configuration file: /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    Line 3: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 7: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 11: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 14: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 18: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 21: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 24: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 27: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 30: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 33: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 37: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 40: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 43: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 47: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 53: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 58: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 61: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 68: invalid line ‘ ‘
    Line 73: invalid line ‘ ‘
    19 errors found in configuration file ‘/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf’

    What am i doing wrong?

    • Andi
      Posted 2. September 2015 at 17:22 | Permalink

      Same mistake i made just by copy/pasting the code from the website.
      As the errorlog reports, there are some Spaces that the program doesnt like (invalid line ‘ ‘)
      You need to go trough the hostapd.conf and delete all the spaces in the middle between the texts, e.g.:
      # Only for bridges, place a # before the next line for AP mode!
      # Interface and Driver

      also the "sudo" before "hostapd -dd …." when testing is essential for me, maybe the author could include it in the tutorial/mention it.

      @the Author: Awesome tutorial, straightforward, most worked out of the box.
      Maybe you could add the hint with "sudo" and the "invalid line ' ' " hint for the copypasters.

      One question though, i have a PiHole setup (, with the ads being blocked over wifi in the same IP Range via DNS (Bridge mode, works like a charm).
      Would it be possible in this setup to tunnel the clients of the wifi trough (Open)VPN? Would like to make the Raspi Hotspot help the Wifi Devices connected to it use OpenVPN, so i do not have to install it on each device.

      Thanks again,

  65. Ero
    Posted 7. June 2015 at 22:51 | Permalink

    is there away to make the Raspberry a wifi repeater without loosing bandwidth.for instance it connects to a distant ap the repeats that signal eve further with the help of the alpha adapter.

  66. Posted 10. January 2016 at 22:56 | Permalink

    The first version couldn’t actually shoot, but later on they redesigned it so it would live up to the name.
    A Secure Hash Algorithm, such as SHA1 or MD5, produces a unique, hash value based on the contents of the file and ensures that even a single
    character changing in a file will be detected. I’m not running
    as an independent as I have in the past.

  67. Posted 13. February 2016 at 08:59 | Permalink

    Because of the changing nature of the storyline, numerous iterations of
    Link have actually appeared throughout the games, even though he occasionally appears across several games.
    Compromising can go a long way, all it takes is a little effort.
    Deputies with the Sarasota County Sheriff’s Office say that the father got angry with his young son and pinned the boy to the couch with his 270 pound frame which prevented the child from being able
    to breathe, according to a January 1 report from NBC Bay Area News.

  68. Rithik
    Posted 26. February 2016 at 05:36 | Permalink

    TRENDnet’s 450Mbps WiFi And Gambling Adapter, model TEW-687GA, communities game playing gaming systems, home theatre systems, as well as DVRs to the Net having an ultra-high efficiency 450Mbps wi-fi link.

  69. Posted 20. May 2016 at 05:07 | Permalink

    I will immediately seize your rss as I can’t to find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service.

    Do you have any? Kindly let me recognise in order
    that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  70. Posted 4. June 2016 at 14:53 | Permalink

    I just couldn’t depart your site prior to suggesting that
    I extremely enjoyed the usual info an individual supply to your visitors?

    Is going to be back steadily in order to check out new posts

  71. Posted 5. June 2016 at 03:37 | Permalink

    When new services emerge, we make sure our systems obtain technology within it,” Chhen said. Some tech heads outside the forums contend they are comparable or even slightly less in performance and quality to the Intel chips. In the PC area, people really care about the performance wuth their device,” Chun said.
    You do not have much skill in selling computers.

  72. Posted 18. June 2016 at 20:21 | Permalink

    Excellent, what a web site it is! This web site gives helpful information to us, keep
    it up.

  73. Posted 20. July 2016 at 17:25 | Permalink

    We721#8&;ll see how it plays out in the morning. Apparently it’s been on the books since forever, but it’s never enforced, so it cannot be that big of a priority or they need to change something. I’m still probably going to have to pay for it. Alas.

  74. Posted 24. August 2016 at 20:44 | Permalink

    If some one wants expert view about running a blog then i suggest him/her to
    go to see this blog, Keep up the good work.

  75. Posted 15. November 2016 at 04:34 | Permalink

    I’m now not certain the place you’re getting
    your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or working out more.
    Thanks for wonderful info I used to be looking for this info
    for my mission.

3 Trackbacks

Achtung: Wordpress interpretiert bestimmte Zeichenfolgen als Markup und verändert diese. Nutzt für Programmcode lieber Gist oder PasteBin-Services und verlinkt die Code-Schnipsel.

Post a Comment

Your email is never published nor shared. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>