Use Your Raspberry Pi as WiFi Bridge or AP

Use Your Raspberry Pi as an WiFi AccessPoint or Bridge, with just 10 minutes of work. Here is exactly how it works:

Usage: Bridge or AccessPoint?

Raspberry Pi and WLAN-Card

The Raspberry Pi combined with a wireless card functions as a wifi bridge or accesspoint

The main task is to run a WLAN station, so that clients (notebooks, smartphones…) can connect to it and use the existing cable network.
To achieve this, We have to do 2 things:

  • Run a WLAN Station
  • Redirect the wireless traffic to the existing network (via iptables or a bridge)

Generally, a simple Bridge is sufficient and what regular users are looking for: Wireless Clients are in the same IP range as the existing network.
The AccessPoint (from now on called AP) is used for large networks, the clients are in a different IP range than the existing network’s clients.

Firstly, we’re going to set up a bridge. After this, I will also explain how to set up an AP. You’ll know which steps you should follow by its headings. They say whether the instructions are for a bridge, AP or both of them.

Prerequisites

  1. Raspberry Pi Modell B
  2. Ethernet Cable (to connect to an existing network)
  3. WLAN-Stick (USB)
  4. Power Supply (e.g. your mobile phone’s)
  5. SD-Card

IMPORTANT: This tutorial is written and tested against the stock Raspbian image. In other distributions, the nl80211 driver may be missing!

Note: In this tutorial, I provide a sample config. These are the settings I use in my network. These are my network’s characteristics:

  • Router: 192.168.178.2
  • Networkmask: 255.255.255.0
  • IP-Address for the Raspberry Pi (eth0): 192.168.178.3

You should adapt these details to Your own network.

Preparations

Raspbian should be installed on an SD-Card plugged into the Raspberry Pi. The ethernet cable and WiFi-stick should be connected to the Pi before you finally connect it to Your power supply and boot it up.

If that is your first boot from that image, make sure to change the users’s password, expand the root file system and maybe change locales. Reboot the Raspberry Pi after doing this.

Now we’re ready to go: I’ll use SSH to control the Pi, because this way, I don’t have to connect it up to a display. It doesn’t matter if You use SSH or direct input with a keyboard. SSH just has the disadvantage that restarting the network on the Pi takes very long (the session has to time out).
We also make sure that our system is up-to-date, so run the following:
Important: This command can be very time-consuming, especially on its first run.

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Now run iw list and look for the AP capability. If it shows up, everything should work. If iw is not installed or just spits out errors, google them. Probably, a driver is missing or perhaps your power supply is too weak for your wireless interface to function.

Install and configure hostapd (Bridge + AP)

We will use hostapd to broadcast a wireless network and iw to configure the WLAN interface. Install the packets with the following command:

sudo apt-get install hostapd iw

After this, We’ll need a configuration for hostapd. I’ll provide my sample config here, which is a minimal config to work in most cases. For special settings, please read through the hostapd documentation.
The following will be saved as /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf:

# Only for bridges, place a # before the next line for AP mode!
bridge=br0

# Interface and Driver
interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211

# WLAN-Settings
ssid=RaspberryAPi
channel=1

# ESSID visible
ignore_broadcast_ssid=0

# Country-specific settings
country_code=US
ieee80211d=1

# Transfer Mode
hw_mode=g

# Optional
# supported_rates=10 20 55 110 60 90 120 180 240 360 480 540

# uncomment the following to enable 802.11 Draft n
# ieee80211n=1

# Enable WMM for Draft-N
# wmm_enabled=1

# Use iw list to see which ht capabilities your wifi card has
# ht_capab=[HT40+][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40]

# Beacons
beacon_int=100
dtim_period=2

# Don't use MAC auth
macaddr_acl=0

# Max Clients
max_num_sta=20

# Limit size of Datapackets
rts_threshold=2347
fragm_threshold=2346

# hostapd Log settings
logger_syslog=-1
logger_syslog_level=2
logger_stdout=-1
logger_stdout_level=2

# temp files
dump_file=/tmp/hostapd.dump
ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
ctrl_interface_group=0

# Authentification
auth_algs=3

# Encryption: WPA2 !!Don't use WEP!
wpa=2
rsn_preauth=1
rsn_preauth_interfaces=wlan0
wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
rsn_pairwise=CCMP

# Key scheduling
wpa_group_rekey=600
wpa_ptk_rekey=600
wpa_gmk_rekey=86400

# Change this, it's the network's key
wpa_passphrase=SuperS3cuRePa$$w0rD

As mentioned in the first line, You will only need “bridge=br0” if you want to use a bridge (recommended). When using the AP-Method, comment this line by placing a # in the first place. You should adjust ssid, wpa_passphrase, region, channel and other settings to meet your criteria, hardware specs and country limitations for wireless networks.

Configure the interfaces (Bridge)

We already configured our bridge to be br0 in line 2 of hostapd.conf, so we have to create the bridge now. The packet bridge-utils will help us create the bridge and with /etc/network/interfaces, all interfaces are configured when booting up.

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

iface default inet dhcp

# Existing network (ethernet)
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.178.3
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.178.255
gateway 192.168.178.2
dns-nameservers 192.168.178.2

# WLAN Interface
allow-hotplug wlan0
iface wlan0 inet manual

# Bridge
auto br0
iface br0 inet static
address 192.168.178.4
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.178.255
gateway 192.168.178.2
dns-nameservers 192.168.178.2
bridge_ports eth0 wlan0
bridge_fd 0
bridge_stp no

#Save the config above as /etc/network/interfaces,
#You'll need root permissions to do so.
#Run sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces to edit the file as root.
#Then, install the bridge-utils:

sudo apt-get install bridge-utils

The bridge should be in the IP range of the existing network and a valid gateway must be set. You can let DHCP configure eth0 and br0, but I prefer static adresses, at least for networking devices like routers, APs and so on. wlan0 doesn’t need an IP address.

Continue with “Test hostapd”.

Note: I haven’t set up a DNS/DHCP Server, as in most network scenarios, there already is one: Your router.

Configure interfaces (AP)

For the AP mode, We don’t use a bridge to redirect the traffic, but iptables. Also, we’ll need a DNS forwarder:

sudo apt-get install dnsmasq iptables

Now, We’ll configure iptables. Edit /etc/network/interfaces, here is my config:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

iface default inet dhcp

# Existing network
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.178.3
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.178.255
gateway 192.168.178.2
dns-nameservers 192.168.178.2

# WLAN Interface / AP address range
allow-hotplug wlan0
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.0.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.0.255

# reset existing rules and chains
up /sbin/iptables -F
 up /sbin/iptables -X
  up /sbin/iptables -t nat -F

# Mask for the interface, activate port-forwarding and NAT
up iptables -A FORWARD -o eth0 -i wlan0 -s 192.168.0.0/24 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -j ACCEPT
 up iptables -A FORWARD -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
  up iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
   up sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

# restart hostapd and dnsmasq
   up /etc/init.d/hostapd restart
    up /etc/init.d/dnsmasq restart

You can use any IP for the wireless interface, set in line 18. All clients will associate with an IP in this range. You also have to change line 28 to match the IP address range.
Example: If you use wlan0 address 192.168.3.1, put -s 192.168.3.0/24 in line 28.

Now: configure dnsmasq by editing /etc/dnsmasq.conf

# DHCP-Server active for the wlan interface
interface=wlan0

# DHCP-Server not active for the existing network
no-dhcp-interface=eth0

# IP-Address range / Lease-Time
dhcp-range=interface:wlan0,192.168.0.100,192.168.0.200,infinite

Dnsmasq is configured to run a DHCP-Server and DNS-forward. Also, We configured that clients will get an IP within the range from 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200.

Test hostapd (AP + Bridge)

First, restart the Raspberry Pi using sudo reboot, so that all changes take effect. After the reboot, log in and run the following:

hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf

Hopefully, you won’t get any errors. The command runs hostapd with our previously saved config in debug mode. If any errors appear, please leave a comment and/or use google to determine why it occurs. If hostapd runs without errors, you can enable hostapd as a daemon to start when booting. Edit /etc/default/hostapd and append this:

DAEMON_CONF="/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf"
RUN_DAEMON=yes

When rebooting again, the daemon is automatically started booting up, making the AP or bridge available.

WLAN Netzwerk Details

Thanks to my Raspberry Pi, the signal strength is better!

Security

Our Raspberry Pi now functions as a connection between WLAN and Ethernet. You must:

  • Secure all (ssh-)Logins with a secure password
  • or disable ssh
  • Use a strong network key
  • And use WPA2

Otherwise your Pi functions as a Man-in-the-Middle device, making it easy for everyone on your network to eavesdrop on your traffic! Not good.
However, with the RasPi being secured, you can safely use it to analyse your traffic, or use it as a Shaping Router.

No matter what you intend to do with it, change the standard user’s password (raspbian uses ‘pi’ as username and ‘raspberry’ as password). Run passwd to change it. Also, never-ever use WEP! Its encryption is completely broken!

Conclusion

It’s rather easy to set up an Access Point or Bridge on the Raspberry Pi. There are some configs to do, but it’s only text files with some parameters set in it, no big deal. Don’t be afraid to play with the configs, adjust them for your network and tweak it.

If something doesn’t work, I’m pretty sure it’s either a driver, nl80211 is missing (use raspian!) or a config file has some bad parameters.

Watch out for 802.11n (Draft-N) mode: hostapd officially supports it, but very often, it just fails or doesn’t quite work. Also, hw_capabs in the hostapd.conf is a typical source of errors: use iw list to find out, what capabilities your network card has. You’ll at least need the AP-Mode capability. You don’t have to set it in hw_capabs, these are just for fine-tuning the network. It’s optional.

If You ran into problems, please leave a comment – I’ll try to help out. And as always: Please leave some feedback. Tell me if this tutorial was any good or bad, share it, link in…

Best regards,
Damon Dransfeld

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106 Comments

  1. Alex
    Posted 29. March 2013 at 19:38 | Permalink

    Hi,

    please to meet you.

    Good tutorial, but i need the only bridge supposed

    me too alfa wifi but in my case this take internet from outside.

    Now i need which my Pi share internet to router across Pi’s lan.

    It’s possible?

    Thx a lot for attention.

    • Posted 31. March 2013 at 17:52 | Permalink

      Sorry, I don’t seem to understand your problem…
      What do you mean by “take internet from outside”? Do you get the internet connection over the WiFi side?
      If that’s the case, just the bridge setup should be sufficient. The only things to change are: You have to connect to the wireless network using a static config: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=263136
      And you’ll perhaps want to add a static IP for the wlan0 interface (swap the config for eth0 and wlan0)

      • Alex
        Posted 1. April 2013 at 21:22 | Permalink

        Sorry for my bad english.

        Ok my pi take internet connection from adpater wifi alfa

        Now i wanna which my raspberry bridge wifi to lan for share internet on other device

        Is correct wifi bridge lan ?

  2. Marcel
    Posted 12. April 2013 at 15:08 | Permalink

    Great tutorial, works like a charm!

  3. Marcel
    Posted 12. April 2013 at 15:48 | Permalink

    Just thought of one question: the value for wpa_passphrase (in hostapd.conf) is printed in clear text. Is there any way to make that more secure (i.e. encrypt it somehow)?

    For now I changed the file permissions to 600…..

    • Posted 14. April 2013 at 14:39 | Permalink

      Hey, sorry for the late response:
      You can also specify the Pre-Shared Key, which is derived from the plaintext key (PMK, pairwise master key) using the AP’s SSID (Network Name).
      Exchange wpa_passphrase by either wpa_psk=your_generated_psk or wpa_psk_file=/path/to/file
      For further information, see the hostap documentation on WPA-PSK setup (search for wpa_psk).
      The PSK can be generated by using the wpa_passphrase tool provided by the wpa_supplicant package.
      Just type wpa_passphrase YOUR_SSID PASSPHRASE in a terminal.

      /edit: By the way: very well thought, I should add this to the post ;)

      • Marcel
        Posted 14. April 2013 at 15:13 | Permalink

        The wpa_passphrase tool works great, thanks!

        and yes, it would be a great addition to your post ;-)

  4. dizzi90
    Posted 18. April 2013 at 15:41 | Permalink

    Could you increase the signal of a network which is already wifi with this? Using the same SSID?
    I.e.
    Internets -> [Modem]->[Router]->-eth0->[Pi]-wlan0->[Clients]
    |———————wlan0——————-^

    • dizzi90
      Posted 18. April 2013 at 15:43 | Permalink

      Obviously whitepsace is removed.
      [Modem]->[Router]->-eth0->[Pi]-wlan0->[Clients]
      |———————wlan0——————-^

      • Posted 23. April 2013 at 00:17 | Permalink

        Phew, I don’t know if this is possible with just 1 wireless card. If yes, your speed would definitely drop, as the card has to forward traffic from one network to another…
        The most simple solution would be to buy a cheap WiFi adaptor. Instead of forwarding the traffic through the bridge/iptables to the wired network card, just forward it to the other wireless card, which is connected to your existing wireless network. Use the same config (channel, ssid, pass) for the network hostapd creates and you’re good to go.

  5. Paul Green
    Posted 1. May 2013 at 14:29 | Permalink

    Hi,
    I followed your tutorial and it all works fine.
    I am however trying to extend it’s use by attempting to bridge a VPN PPTP connection i.e have the PPTP connection broadcast by wifi.
    I seem to have all the pieces working but can’t figure how to do this final bit.
    How can I use PPP0 rather than eth0 as the source of the bridge?

    Many thanks for getting me this far.

  6. helmii
    Posted 19. June 2013 at 18:11 | Permalink

    Hello Everybody..when mofying a configuration file usin Config::Simple Module it generate two lines at the beginning at the file: thats what i get after saving with $cfg->save();
    ; Config::Simple 4.59
    ; Wed Jun 19 15:17:00 2013
    then the rest of the file updated successfully as i want!
    i m configuring /etc/hostapd-1.0/hostapd/hostapd.conf and the problem is when starting hostapd with the command:
    hostapd /etc/hostapd-1.0/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    i get an error message
    Line 1: invalid line ‘; Config::Simple 4.59’
    Line 2: invalid line ‘; Wed Jun 19 15:17:00 2013’
    2 errors found in configuration file ‘/etc/hostapd-1.0/hostapd/hostapd.conf’!!

    So is it possible to generate a configuration file without those two lines causing errors?? thx for helping me :)))))

  7. Peter Martin
    Posted 22. June 2013 at 05:14 | Permalink

    If I understand this correctly this connects via cable to an existing network to create a wireless network.

    I’d like to use an Alfa card, with a high gain antenna attached, to connect to a distant Wireless network and then create a separate wireless network locally.

  8. David Mitchell
    Posted 25. June 2013 at 03:17 | Permalink

    Great tutorial, thanks!

  9. publicENEMY
    Posted 6. August 2013 at 10:17 | Permalink

    This configuration works fine when connected to lan(ethernet). But the setup doesnt break if i dont connect my pi to my router through lan(ethernet).

    is there any way to make the setup works when there is no lan(ethernet) to router?

    • Posted 6. August 2013 at 15:43 | Permalink

      Do you just want the Pi to connect several wireless devices?
      In this case, follow these steps:
      Install and configure hostapd (Bridge + AP): Don’t use the “bridge=br0” line in the config file
      Configure interfaces (AP): Leave out the config for eth0 and the iptables part
      Everything else can be done as described above.

      hostapd will create a wireless AP, you just need to run a DHCP to assign IP addresses, so the wireless devices can communicate with each other.

  10. Ivan
    Posted 30. September 2013 at 00:19 | Permalink

    Hi Damon,
    Thanks for the tutorial, works great. Just one question: what is a setting for the AP to run a DHCP. My current local networking runs by router with the Static IP addresses, but I need an AP which is acting as DHCP for my some wireless devices which are not supported a static IP address.
    Kind regards
    Ivan

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  12. vib
    Posted 11. October 2013 at 22:30 | Permalink

    Hi,

    I followed all your step, all is working fine excepted…internet ;x
    My bridge is ok, devices connected in wifi can connect to internet but my raspberry can’t connect.
    I can login via ssh but when i wan’t to install sthg for exemple, i got “Could not resolve ‘mirrordirector.raspbian.org'” to each line for apt-get install …

    DO you know why ?

    • Kakahuete
      Posted 21. May 2014 at 18:05 | Permalink

      Looks like the Pi doesn’t have the DNS server correctly configurated.

  13. Harry
    Posted 15. October 2013 at 02:54 | Permalink

    Hi
    I’m new to this Linux thing so please help me, I did everything according to your tutorial but I’m getting this error, and I have ASUS USB N13 wirless adapter.

    pi@HarryPi ~ $ hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    random: Trying to read entropy from /dev/random
    Configuration file: /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    ctrl_interface_group=0
    nl80211: interface wlan0 in phy phy0
    rfkill: initial event: idx=0 type=1 op=0 soft=0 hard=0
    nl80211: Using driver-based off-channel TX
    nl80211: Register frame command failed (type=208): ret=-1 (Operation not permitted)
    nl80211: Register frame match – hexdump(len=2): 04 0a
    nl80211: Failed to register Action frame processing – ignore for now
    nl80211: Interface wlan0 is in bridge br0
    nl80211: Add own interface ifindex 5
    nl80211: Add own interface ifindex 3
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    netlink: Operstate: linkmode=0, operstate=6
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Set mode ifindex 3 iftype 2 (STATION)
    nl80211: Failed to set interface 3 to mode 2: -1 (Operation not permitted)
    nl80211: Try mode change after setting interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    Could not set interface wlan0 flags: Operation not permitted
    nl80211: Failed to set interface down
    nl80211: Interface mode change to 2 from 3 failed
    nl80211 driver initialization failed.
    rmdir[ctrl_interface]: Permission denied

    • Manu17lr
      Posted 30. December 2013 at 14:12 | Permalink

      I guess you have to enter “sudo hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf” instead of “hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf”. As far as I’m concerned , I need to have root privileges to run hostapd.

  14. mak0
    Posted 25. November 2013 at 21:39 | Permalink

    Like your tutorial, it works for me at the first time. I just had to use a untrusted driver for my Edimax(F*****g) Wifi card. Used the following tutorial to get it work: http://www.daveconroy.com/turn-your-raspberry-pi-into-a-wifi-hotspot-with-edimax-nano-usb-ew-7811un-rtl8188cus-chipset/

    Thank You!

    Kind Regards

  15. Alex
    Posted 11. February 2014 at 18:40 | Permalink

    This is perfect :)

    The only trouble I had, is I copypasted the hostapd.conf file, so on every blank line there was a blankspace character, apart from that all good thankyou

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      Thanks again,
      Andi

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